The future mother woke up with a cold in the morning. You have to breathe through your mouth, but who will consider such a state a weighty reason for a visit to the clinic; especially at home affairs to the throat. After a few days, a headache is added to the constant nasal congestion, and something similar to pus is already flowing from the nostrils ... So, a dangerous inflammation crept up on the woman - antritis. It is not easy to treat it during pregnancy: substances from drugs often penetrate into the fetus, so doctors oppose taking most medicines. At the same time, sinusitis is not a disease that can be endured; she herself will not pass, in addition will cause complications in the unborn child.
Why sinusitis occurs and what brings with it
Above the upper jaw, on either side of the nose, are the accessory voids - the maxillary sinuses. They lie in the thickness of the facial bone and in fact are not empty at all, but filled with air.
In humans, the sinuses are responsible for:
- Purification of air entering the lungs. Impurities, including viruses and bacteria, linger in the mucous lining cavity.
- Air warming. In the winter cold, the maxillary sinuses reduce the effect of cold on the organs; with sharp fluctuations in temperature protect eyes and teeth from them.
- Good sense of smell. Nerve cells and blood vessels on the surface of the sinuses increase the sensitivity of the receptors, making people better distinguish odors.
- Individual voice timbre. The sinuses filled with air play the role of a resonator and form the coloring of the sound.
Despite the role of "nurse" of the air inhaled by man, the maxillary sinuses under certain conditions are powerless to resist the influx of harmful microbes. As a result, the mucous membrane is inflamed, the sinuses are filled with pus - this condition is called sinusitis.
Sometimes the frontal sinus is inflamed along with the maxillary sinus, since both cavities communicate with the nasopharynx, which facilitates the passage of microorganisms.When sinus mucosa ceases to perform the function of an antimicrobial filter itself turns into an object of attack of microbes
Symptoms of the disease
"Wake-up call" is the appearance of headaches with a cold. Since it is easy to confuse acute rhinitis and incipient sinusitis, the very first unpleasant sensations in the maxillary sinuses should be alerted and forced to consult a doctor.
Sinusitis is accompanied by:
- pains in the frontal part, jaw and sinuses;
- pain in the area behind the eyes, which is aggravated by tilting the head;
- permanent nasal congestion, a person is forced to breathe through his mouth;
- loss of ability to distinguish odors;
- yellow-green thick purulent discharge from the nose or liquid discharge with a putrid odor;
- night cough - due to the fact that pus in a lying position drains along the back wall of the sinuses, causing irritation;
- temperature increase (not always).
Depending on how the disease proceeds, there are two forms of sinusitis:
- Spicy The disease occurs for the first time, the symptoms are pronounced brightly, it develops quickly: the state of health worsens, heat appears. If treated correctly, it goes away after 2 weeks.
- Chronic. The logical consequence of the acute form, if the disease is not treated or improperly treated. Symptoms are erased, but the disease does not go away for 6 weeks or more. A runny nose and cough can not be treated, the eyes are constantly swollen. Sometimes the nasal passage is closed by polyps.
Sinusitis can be one-sided if one maxillary sinus inflames, and bilateral if both sinuses are infected. Bilateral is more common.
Causes of sinusitis
Such factors are capable of provoking the disease:
- Running colds infections - including ARVI; eventually, the pathogens enter the maxillary sinuses.
- Weakened immunity. A healthy immune system repels pathogens, a weak one - succumbs to them.
- Allergy. The maxillary sinus can become inflamed by the irritating action of an allergen. The future mother's body often suffers from allergic reactions that sometimes provoke the development of sinusitis
- Congenital anomalies of the nasal cavities. For example, the presence of narrow passages connecting the sinuses with adjacent formations (sockets, carotid artery), or the separation of the maxillary sinus into two bony septum.
- The curvature of the septum of the nose. The consequence of injury or congenital feature. When the deformation of the septum breathing is difficult, runny nose occurs regularly.
Pregnant women are at risk
During childbirth, the woman's body undergoes physiological changes, as a result of which, unfortunately, it loses some of its defenses.
The immune system
Nine out of ten future mothers have a decrease in immunity. This is facilitated by:
- Hormonal restructuring of the body. The hormone progesterone seems to "reprogram" the protective mechanism of the mother to the priority protection of the health of the future baby.
- Growth and development of the fetus. The child takes away from the mother of some of the nutrients, willy-nilly depleting the woman's body.
- Anxiety, stress in the 1st and 3rd trimesters - for fear of miscarriage, premature birth and so on. The future mother exhausts herself with feelings that does not benefit immunity. On the eve of birth, the future mother is hampered by the fear of a painful operation, it weakens the body and reduces the resistance of the infection
As a result, the same is not cured until the end of the flu, ARVI or tonsillitis lead to rhinosinusitis - inflammation of the nasal mucosa; and there and to sinusitis at hand. On the epithelium of the maxillary sinuses, which formerly served as a "trap" for pathogenic microflora, numerous staphylococcal colonies now dominate; An army of viruses, fungi, and chlamydia may also settle. Sinuses are filled with pus.
The amount of estrogen decreases, progesterone grows - this hormone stimulates the membranes, which produce mucus, to produce it more and more. Discharge - saliva, nasal mucus - thicken, become more viscous.
In such favorable conditions, harmful microbes, from which liquid mucus previously relieved the body without delay, are now not in a hurry; master comfortable places where it is humid and warm. Of course, some bacteria and viruses die, but with weak immunity, the mucosa does not offer stubborn resistance. Microorganisms are deposited on the surface, penetrate into the cells, where they multiply rapidly. And the woman risks to catch dysbacteriosis, antritis and other pathologies.
What threatens sinusitis during pregnancy
To wave a hand at a disease, hoping that it will pass without treatment, means at least to provoke the transition of antritis to the chronic form. Inflammation will begin to "walk" in the body, which has a weakened immune system, spreading the infection throughout the organs. Expectant mother will get pharyngitis, otitis or sore throat. But this, as they say, is the least evil.
Inflammation of a woman’s maxillary sinuses, which is not stopped in time, leads to disruption of the work of the most important organs and systems; in some cases, the life of the future child is questioned.
Among the possible consequences of sinusitis for the mother:
- renal pelvis damage (cavities in the kidneys where urine accumulates to move along the ureter);
- hypoxia (lack of oxygen in the body), because breathing is impaired;
- diseases of the teeth;
- inflammation of the trigeminal nerve;
- myocarditis - myocardial (cardiac muscle) damage;
- meningitis - inflammation of the lining of the brain;
- rhinogenic brain abscess - accumulation of pus in the cranial cavity, inflammation in the tissues of the medulla.
In the body of the future child from the lack of oxygen that the baby receives through the placenta, hypoxia will also develop; it threatens cell death and, in some cases, necrosis of the internal organs.
Too expensive to pay for the careless attitude to "some kind of cold."
How to diagnose sinusitis
The main task of the otolaryngologist, to whom the patient turned, is to distinguish between sinusitis and rhinitis; at the initial stage, the symptoms of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses are mild and the disease resembles catarrhal or atrophic rhinitis.
Immediately "flash" the disease X-rays. However, during pregnancy, radiography is unsafe, and there is no need to resort to radiation. In the cells of the fetus damaged DNA chains, the structure of proteins. For this reason, computed tomography, which also uses X-rays, is also prohibited.
Thus, during pregnancy, the range of methods for the diagnosis of sinusitis is narrowed. Come to the fore:
- examination of the nasal cavity for purulent discharge, palpation of the maxillary sinuses; If the patient experiences acute pain when pressing on the maxillary sinuses, most likely she has sinusitis
- familiarization with the history of the disease of a woman to determine the history (did she have flu, acute respiratory viral infections, pneumonia, was there any allergies or injuries to the nose)?
Sometimes a otolaryngologist requires a so-called differential diagnosis, because sinusitis can "pretend" not only with a cold, but also, say, with inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. Then the doctor presses on the facial points in the places where the branches of the nerve exit. If the patient feels a sharp pain, perhaps she does not have antritis. With the help of other methods of differential diagnosis, the doctor is convinced in the absence of different types of rhinitis.
If necessary, the doctor sends the patient to the instrumental diagnosis, which is considered safe for future mothers. Do:
- Ultrasound of the nasal sinuses;
- imaging research;
- diaphanoscopy, or translucence of the maxillary sinuses by a narrow beam of light - in the dark, when translucent, the liquid becomes reddish.
In addition, additional visits to the offices are possible:
- a dentist, because bad teeth can trigger sinusitis;
- an allergist to determine if a disease has occurred as a result of an allergy;
- a neurologist to find out whether sinusitis has caused complications inside the skull.
Treatment of sinusitis in future mothers
The disease is effectively treated with medication, but expectant mothers rely on such therapy. Most drugs are forbidden to those who bear the child, because the active substances of drugs penetrate the placenta and can harm the fetus. Therefore, it is important at the first suspicion of sinusitis to visit a doctor and get recommendations from him for the treatment of a dangerous disease.
The first procedure, which the ENT doctor usually offers the patient with sinusitis, is called "cuckoo". This is a common rinsing of the nose: pus is removed by moving the fluid. Do this:
- A woman lies on her back, her head is located below the body. Twist the head during the session can not be.
- The doctor in one nostril of the patient pours saline with a syringe, while at the same time sucking pus from the other nostrils with a special device; together with the liquid discharge easily leave the nasal cavity.
- The syringe is inserted into the other nostril, and the suction now removes pus from the first nostril.
The peculiarity of the procedure is that during the flow of fluid from one nostril to another, the patient must repeat the “cuckoo” so that the solution does not get into the throat and the woman does not choke. Try saying “ku-ku”: you will feel that the ligaments are closing, blocking the passage.
As the sinuses cleanse, the outflowing fluid, initially turbid, becomes more transparent; one procedure requires 100-120 ml of solution and 10-15 minutes of time.
Thanks to the "cuckoo", both the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinuses are cleaned of pus. The method is effective for non-severe forms of the disease; if the sinusitis is complex and running, the "cuckoo" will not help.
And yet, sometimes, to get rid of sinusitis, a pregnant woman can not do without antibiotics. Modern pharmacology develops and produces sparing drugs that, as promised, will not harm the developing fetus. Among such antibacterial drugs:
- Augmentin is an antibiotic of the penicillin group. The active ingredients - amoxicillin and clavulanic acid - penetrate the placenta, but no adverse effects on the fetus have been identified. The manual says that during pregnancy it is recommended to use in exceptional cases. The dosage is prescribed by the doctor; The course of therapy is no more than 10 days.
- Cedex is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. The active substance - ceftibuten - overcomes the placental barrier, therefore it should be taken only in severe forms of sinusitis. If the patient has problems with the kidneys and liver, the remedy is used with caution, the dose is reduced 4 times; The duration of therapy is 5-10 days.
- Rovamycin is an macrolide antibiotic. The active substance - spiramycin - enters the blood of the fetus, but no harmful effects are detected; according to the instructions, the drug is allowed to take pregnant women. The course of treatment specifies the doctor. When liver failure drink tablets should be with caution.
Photo Gallery: antibiotics allowed for pregnant women with sinus
- Augmentin tablets will help get rid of sinusitis, but expectant mothers need to take caution
- Cedex - powder for suspension preparation - is considered a powerful antibiotic, but penetrates through the placenta
- Rovamycin tablets is one of the few antibiotics allowed for expectant mothers
Even from a cursory description of drugs, it is clear that drinking antibacterial tablets and solutions without prior medical consultation is an unforgivable mistake. The safety of any medicine is relative.
Of course, with antritis, caused not by bacteria, but by viruses, antibiotics are bad helpers. In addition, due to the widespread use of antibacterial drugs, the number of lesions of the maxillary sinuses is growing by a fungus: the clinical picture is different, the therapy is special.
To compensate for the deficiency of beneficial microflora in the body, the Linex, Bifiform, and Hilak Forte complexes can be prescribed to the patient as an auxiliary treatment.
In moderate amounts, doctors are allowed to instill into the nose means for narrowing the vessels, which relieve swelling of the nasal cavity and restore the mucous membrane (Nazivin, Otrivin and others). But if the antritis proceeds without "destructive" consequences, it is better to refuse drops and nasal sprays: they can affect the health of the future baby.
Will homeopathy help with sinus
It is believed that homeopathy is a salutary alternative to antibiotics during pregnancy. This treatment method is different:
- individual approach to the patient;
- the use of funds with a small amount of the active substance;
- using active substances of natural origin only.
When sinus patients prescribe popular homeopathic remedies:
- Euphorbium compositum.
The main goal of the drugs is to “launch” the normal functioning of the immune system, so that the body itself can fight infection.
In medical circles, controversy over homeopathy does not abate: the Russian Academy of Sciences recognized such an alternative method of treating pseudoscience. The World Health Organization does not share the approach of Russian scientists, but denies the effectiveness of homeopathy in the treatment of serious diseases, including infectious diseases.
Whether you trust homeopathy or not - in any case, recklessly rely on the magic effect of the method in the treatment of sinusitis. Homeopathic remedies "work" slowly, which during acute inflammation of the maxillary sinuses can lead to disastrous consequences. Therefore, homeopathy is recommended only as an adjunctive therapy.
Puncture of the maxillary sinus
The most efficient and effective way to get rid of a long-standing disease is a puncture. Provides instant relief to the patient, however, is associated with discomfort during the procedure. Procedure:
- With a sterile needle, the doctor pierces the maxillary sinus.
- Cleans the cavity of pus using a syringe.
- In the bosom pours medical antiseptic solution, safe for pregnant women.
As a result of the procedure, pressure in the maxillary sinuses sharply decreases - and headaches immediately recede, it becomes easy to breathe.
Someone doubts the effectiveness of the puncture, arguing that after a while the sinusitis returns. Doctors protest: the disease will return only if you do not treat the cold again. When the patient is closely monitoring their health, relapses are excluded.
In clinics equipped with modern equipment, they make an alternative procedure: they put a sinus catheter - a device invented by the Russian scientist Kozlov. With the help of a sinus catheter, a vacuum is created inside the nose, thanks to which the maxillary sinuses are opened. Pus from the sinuses freely flows into the syringe, cavities are cleaned. The method is considered non-surgical, but the procedure is performed under local anesthesia.
Treatment of folk remedies
If you suspect that your runny nose turns into sinusitis, proceed to the well-known folk method - flushing your nostrils with a disinfectant solution. In the initial stages of the disease can be stopped with home therapy. However, even in this case, a visit to the doctor can not be avoided: not every solution prepared at home according to old recipes is suitable for pregnancy. Be wary:
- alcohol tinctures;
- infusions of herbs that cause allergies.
Правильно промываем нос
Процедура считается и лечебной, и профилактической. Делаем так:
- Берём резиновую грушу, или шприц большого объёма без иглы, или маленький чайник. Наполняем ёмкость раствором. Встаём над раковиной.
- Put the end of the syringe or teapot nose to the right nostril. Lean your head to the left. Pour the liquid into the nostril.
- When the muscles are relaxed, water will flow out of the left nostril. If numb in the mouth, squeeze the throat, or try to repeat that same "cuckoo".
- Carefully blow out the nose to remove the rest of the solution from the nose.
Do not go outside after the procedure, wait an hour or two. Since the pathogenic microflora is washed out of the nose, and the healthy, cold air will damage the defenseless mucous membrane, will bring in new microbes.
If you rinse the nasal cavity with a pear or syringe, do not apply the liquid with a strong jet: push the mucus into the middle ear.
Here are the recipes for solutions for washing the nose, which will be useful for nursing mothers:
- Brine. Salt (normal or sea) is able to pull mucus from the nose, remove the swelling and disinfect the mucous. Dissolve 1 tbsp. l salt in 0.5 liters of warm water - and begin washing.
- Infusion of chamomile flowers. Chamomile has a complex of healing properties. 1 tsp flowers pour 1 cup of boiling water. Insist half an hour, drain.
- Infusion cuff ordinary. Known for its anti-inflammatory effects. 3 tbsp. l dried cups pour 2 cups boiling water, leave for 4 hours, then strain.
Photo gallery: means for washing the nose that will not harm during pregnancy
- The solution with sea salt is rich in nutrients and good antiseptic
- Chamomile flowers have long been used as a bactericidal agent
- Herb cuff can be found in any forest - this herb softens the symptoms of inflammation
Nasal washing with medicinal solutions is also used in the treatment of complex forms of sinusitis - as an auxiliary method.
We use natural drops
To alleviate the symptoms of sinusitis, drops based on medicinal plants are suitable. Cooking is simple:
- Aloe juice Buy at the pharmacy or squeeze out a sheet of a home plant (the plant must be at least 2-3 years old). To drip into the nose 4 times a day, 2-4 drops in each nostril.
- Tea tree oil. The tree grows in Australia, the oil is sold in pharmacies. It is considered a powerful antiseptic. 2-3 drops of aloe add to the juice - and the medicine is ready. Dig in 4 times a day.
- Beet Juice Squeeze the juice from boiled beets. Drip 3 drops 5 times a day.
As well as solutions for washing the nose, vegetable drops are best not to apply without the approval of the doctor: the same tea tree oil causes allergies.Tea tree oil is used for infectious diseases, but the remedy is unsafe during pregnancy.
As a future mom to avoid sinusitis
In order not to deal with the inflammation of the maxillary sinuses and not to spoil the happy months of waiting for posterity, a pregnant woman should:
- Do not ignore the cold, try to cure for 4-5 days.
- Do not go out into the cold without a headdress.
- Eat right, supplementing the diet with vegetables, fruits; in winter and spring, with a deficiency of vitamins, with the permission of the doctor to take vitamin complexes.
- If you live in the megalopolis, during epidemics of influenza or ARVI do not visit crowded places.
- To improve air circulation in the nose, do breathing exercises: close one nostril with a finger, inhale deeply, exhale through the mouth; hold the other nostril and repeat the exercise. Make 8-10 times.
I had sinusitis 7-8 years ago. The treatment did not help - they made a puncture. Don't hurt, just scary. I am sure that giving birth is 5000000 times more painful. Since then, no sinusitis and runny nose is extremely rare.
Sinusitis sinusitis discord, do not joke with pus !!! Amoxiclav is an antibiotic cat. prescribed for sinus - not contraindicated in pregnancy !!! Gone with sinusitis at a period of 9-10 weeks. - not purulent, got with the bleeding to save! It’s good that the discharge from the sinuses was active and there was no stagnation! Chronic rhinitis treated with Aquamaris drops and Sinupret tablets (not to be confused with tincture - it contains alcohol) - these drugs can be pregnant. And Vitaon is also a good help - it is a balm on herbs - smeared in the nose and face skin in the region of the maxillary sinuses - for 2 weeks of treatment as new!
Treatment of sinusitis in the future mother requires a competent approach. The woman is responsible for the health of the child she wears under her heart. Even drugs that are considered safe, with an incorrectly chosen dosage, threaten the development of the fetus, therefore, treatment on your own is a rash step. However, methods of getting rid of the disease is enough, the main thing is to choose the most effective of those that are allowed during pregnancy. And after successful therapy, in no case will it be possible to prevent the return of sinusitis, otherwise the difficult experience of overcoming the disease will be useless.